Dubaï – Wikipedia → Devis pour Assurance Viet

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Metropolis aux Emirats Arabes Unis

Dubaï ( dooPAR; Arabe: دبي Dubay. Golfe Arabe: Prononciation arabe: (Dʊbɑj)) est la ville la plus grande et la plus peuplée des Émirats arabes unis (EAU).(5) Sur la côte sud-est du golfe Persique, se trouve la capitale de l'émirat de Dubaï, l'un des sept émirats qui composent ce pays.(6)(7)(8)

Dubaï est une ville mondiale et un centre d’affaires au Moyen-Orient.(9) C'est également le principal hub mondial pour les passagers et le fret.(10) Les revenus pétroliers ont permis d'accélérer le développement de la ville, qui était déjà un important centre commercial, mais les réserves de pétrole de Dubaï sont limitées et les niveaux de production sont bas: actuellement, moins de 5% des revenus de l'émirat proviennent du pétrole.(11) Centre croissant du commerce régional et international depuis le début du XXe siècle, l’économie de Dubaï repose actuellement sur les revenus du commerce, du tourisme, de l’aviation, de l’immobilier et des services financiers.(12)(13)(14)(15)

Dubaï attire l'attention du monde entier grâce à de grands projets de construction et à des événements sportifs, notamment le plus haut bâtiment du monde, Burj Khalifa. À partir de 2012, Dubaï était la ville la plus chère du Moyen-Orient.(16)(17) En 2014, les chambres d'hôtel à Dubaï étaient considérées comme le deuxième plus cher au monde.(18)(19)

étymologie

De nombreuses théories ont été proposées concernant l'origine du mot «Dubaï». Une théorie suggère que le mot a été utilisé pour décrire Soukc'était semblable à Souk en Ba.(20) Proverbe arabe dit "Daba Dubai« (En arabe: دبا دبي), Ce qui signifie "Ils sont venus avec beaucoup d’argent".(21) Selon Fedel Handhal, chercheur en histoire et culture des Émirats arabes unis, le mot Dubaï pourrait provenir de ce mot. daba (Arabe: دبا) (Dérivé du passé yadub (Arabe: يدب), Ce qui signifie "ramper"), se référant au flux lent des terres Dubai Creek. Le poète et érudit Ahmad Mohammad Obaid le suit au même mot, mais son autre sens signifie "bébé criquet" (arabe: جراد) En raison de l’abondance de criquets dans cette zone avant de s’installer.(22)

histoire

Dague en bronze et fer, site archéologique de Saruq Al Hadid (1100 av. JC)

L’histoire des établissements humains dans la région actuellement définie par les Émirats arabes unis est riche et complexe et met en évidence les liens commerciaux étroits qui unissent les civilisations de la vallée de l’Indus et de la Mésopotamie, mais aussi jusqu’au Levant.(23) Découvertes archéologiques dans l'émirat de Dubaï, notamment à Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh et au trésor particulièrement riche de Saruq Al Hadid(24) montrer les colonies à travers les périodes Ubaid et Hafit, les périodes Umm Al Nar et Wadi Suq, et trois périodes de fer dans les Emirats Arabes Unis. Les Sumériens appelaient cette région Maganet était la source de produits métalliques, en particulier de cuivre et de bronze.(25)

La région était recouverte de sable il y a environ 5 000 ans, lorsque la côte s'est retirée à l'intérieur des terres pour faire partie de la côte actuelle de la ville.(26)(27) Des céramiques pré-islamiques ont été trouvées aux troisième et quatrième siècles.(28) Avant l’introduction de l’islam dans cette région, les habitants de la région adoraient Bajir (ou Bajar).(28) Après la propagation de l'islam dans la région du calife omeyyade du monde islamique oriental, il envahit le sud-est de l'Arabie et expulsa les Sasiadans. Fouilles au musée de Dubaï dans la région Al-Jumayra (Jumeirah) a trouvé plusieurs artefacts de la période omeyyade.(29)

La première mention de Dubaï date de 1095 Livre de géographie par le géographe andalou-arabe Abu Abdullah al-Bakri.(devis obligatoire) Le marchand de perles vénitiennes Gasparo Balbi s’est rendu dans cette région en 1580. Il a également mentionné Dubaï (Dibei) pour l'industrie de la perle.(29)

Établissement de Dubaï moderne

On pense que Dubaï a été fondé comme village de pêcheurs au début du 18ème siècle(30) et jusqu'en 1822, c'était une ville d'environ 7 à 800 membres de la tribu des Bani Yas et des cheikhs sous le règne du cheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut d'Abou Dhabi.(31)

En 1833, après les querelles tribales, des membres de la tribu Al Bu Falasah se sont séparés d'Abou Dhabi et ont été fondés à Dubaï. L'exode d'Abou Dhabi était dirigé par Obeid bin Saeed et Maktoum bin Butti, qui devinrent conjointement les dirigeants de Dubaï jusqu'à la mort d'Ubaid en 1836. Quittant le Maktum pour fonder la dynastie des Maktoum.(30)

Dubaï a signé le Traité général de la marine de 1820. Avec d’autres États en guerre, après une expédition criminelle britannique contre Ras Al Khaimah à partir de 1819, qui a également entraîné le bombardement de la communauté côtière du Golfe. Cela a conduit à la trêve perpétuelle de 1853. Dubaï – tout comme les voisins de la côte truculaire – a conclu un accord exclusif en vertu duquel le Royaume-Uni assumait la responsabilité de la sécurité de l'émirat en 1892.

En 1841, l'épidémie de variole se déclara à Bur Dubai, forçant les habitants à se déplacer vers l'est, à Deira.(32) En 1896, un incendie se déclara à Dubaï, événement catastrophique dans une ville où de nombreuses maisons de famille étaient encore construites. barasti – Des feuilles de palmier. La confusion a consumé la moitié des maisons de Bur Dubai et le quartier de Deira a été complètement détruit. L'année suivante, d'autres incendies ont éclaté. La fille esclave a été prise en flagrant délit, puis elle a été tuée.(33)

En 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum fonda Dubaï en tant que port franc, sans taxe sur les importations ni sur les exportations, et donna également aux acheteurs de terres des garanties de protection et de tolérance. Cette politique a causé le mouvement des marchands non seulement directement de Lingeh,(34) mais aussi ceux qui se sont installés à Ras Al Khaimah et à Sharjah (qui avaient des liens historiques avec Lingeh de la tribu Al Qawasi) à Dubaï. L'indice de l'importance croissante du port de Dubaï peut être obtenu grâce aux mouvements des navires à vapeur Bombay et Persian Steam Navigation Company, qui en 1899-1901 se rendaient cinq fois par an à Dubaï. En 1902, les navires de la compagnie firent 21 visites à Dubaï et à partir de 1904(35) les paquebots appelés toutes les deux semaines – en 1906, vendant soixante dix mille tonnes de fret.(36) La fréquence de ces navires n'a fait qu'accélérer le rôle de Dubaï en tant que port émergent et centre de préférences commerciales. Lorimer note que le transfert de Lingeh "vise honnêtement à devenir complet et permanent",(34) et que la ville jusqu'en 1906 a éliminé Lingeh en tant que principal entrepreneur des États dotés de principes.(37)

La «grande tempête» de 1908 a frappé les bateaux de perles de Dubaï et des Émirats côtiers à la fin de la saison des perles, ce qui a entraîné la perte d'une douzaine de bateaux et de plus de 100 personnes. La catastrophe a été un grave échec pour Dubaï, car de nombreuses familles ont perdu leur soutien de famille et leurs marchands confrontés à la ruine financière. Ces pertes sont apparues à un moment où les tribus de l'intérieur ont également connu la pauvreté. Dans une lettre au sultan Mascate en 1911, Butti regrette: "La pauvreté et la pauvreté font rage parmi eux, ce qui les oblige à se battre, à piller et à se tuer entre eux".(38)

Dubaï pré-huile

La proximité géographique de Dubaï avec l'Iran en fait un lieu commercial important. La ville de Dubaï était un port important pour les commerçants étrangers, principalement d’Iran, dont beaucoup se sont finalement installés dans la ville. Au début du 20ème siècle, c'était un port important.(39) A cette époque, Dubaï se composait de la ville de Dubaï et du village voisin de Jumeirah, une collection d'environ 45 Areeshou feuille de palmier.(37) Dubaï était connue pour l’exportation de perles jusqu’aux années 1930; Le commerce des perles a été irréversiblement détruit par la Grande Dépression de 1929 et les innovations dans les cultures de perles. Avec l’effondrement de l’industrie perlière, Dubaï est tombé dans une profonde dépression et de nombreux habitants vivent dans la pauvreté ou ont émigré dans d’autres parties du golfe Persique.(26)

Depuis ses débuts, Dubaï n’a cessé de se disputer avec Abou Dhabi. En 1947, le différend frontalier entre Dubaï et Abou Dhabi sur la partie nord de leur frontière commune s'est transformé en guerre.(40) L'arbitrage britannique a conduit à la cessation des hostilités.(41)

Le quartier d'Al Ras à Deira et la crique de Dubaï au milieu des années 1960

Malgré le manque de pétrole, le souverain de Dubaï en 1958, le cheikh Rashid bin Saïd Al Maktoum, utilisa les revenus commerciaux pour construire des infrastructures. Des entreprises privées ont été créées pour construire et exploiter des infrastructures, notamment de l’électricité, des services téléphoniques, des aéroports et des exploitants d’aéroports.(42) À Dubaï, dans les années 50, une sorte d’aéroport a été créée (une piste construite sur des salines) et, en 1959, le premier hôtel de l’Émirat a été construit. Puis en 1968, les hôtels Ambassador et Carlton.(43)

En 1959, la première compagnie de téléphone a été créée à Dubaï, détenue à 51% par IAL (international Aeradio Ltd) et à 49% par Sheikh Rashid et des hommes d’affaires locaux. En 1961. Tant la compagnie d’électricité que la compagnie de téléphone ont mis en place des réseaux opérationnels.(44) La compagnie des eaux (Sheikh Rashid en était le président et l'actionnaire majoritaire) a construit un pipeline à partir du puits d'Awir et de plusieurs réservoirs de stockage. En 1968, Dubaï disposait d'un approvisionnement fiable en eau.(44)

Le 7 avril 1961, le MV Dara de Dubaï, un navire d'une capacité de cinq mille tonnes battant pavillon britannique et traversant la route reliant Bassor (Iraq), le Koweït et Bombay (Inde), a été pris dans un vent extrêmement fort venant de Dubaï. Tôt le matin, le lendemain, dans les eaux tumultueuses d'Al-Quwain, l'explosion a arraché les cabines de deuxième classe et a déclenché des incendies. Le capitaine a donné l'ordre de quitter le navire, mais les deux bateaux de sauvetage ont chaviré et une deuxième explosion s'est produite. La flottille de petits bateaux de Dubaï, Sharjah, Ajman et Umm al-Quwain a récupéré les survivants, mais au total 238 victimes sont décédées des suites d'une catastrophe.(45)

La construction du premier aéroport de Dubaï a commencé à l'extrême nord de la ville en 1959 et le terminal a été ouvert en septembre 1960. L’aéroport était à l’origine desservi par Gulf Aviation (vols Dakota, Herons et Viscount), mais Iran Air a commencé son transport vers Shiraz en 1961.(44)

En 1962, un agent politique britannique nota qu '"un grand nombre de nouvelles maisons et immeubles de bureaux sont en construction … Le souverain est déterminé, malgré le conseil (britannique), à ​​poursuivre la construction d'un aéroport à réaction … De plus en plus d'entreprises européennes et arabes s'ouvrent, et l'avenir semble prometteur. "(43)

En 1962, alors que les dépenses relatives aux projets d'infrastructure approchaient d'un niveau jugé imprudent, Cheikh Rashid s'est tourné vers son beau-frère, le dirigeant du Qatar, pour obtenir un prêt pour la construction du premier pont traversant le cours d'eau de Dubaï. Ce voyage a été achevé en mai 1963 et il a été payé pour des frais facturés pour le voyage de Dubaï au site Deira.(42)

La BOAC a commencé avec réticence à assurer des vols réguliers entre Mumbai et Dubaï, craignant le manque de demande de sièges. Cependant, avant la construction de la piste asphaltée de l'aéroport de Dubaï en 1965, ouvrant Dubaï à la fois pour le trafic régional et le vol longue distance, un certain nombre de compagnies aériennes étrangères se disputaient les droits d'atterrissage.(42) En 1970, un nouveau terminal aéroportuaire a été construit, qui comprenait les premiers magasins hors taxes à Dubaï.(46)

Dans les années soixante, Dubaï était le centre du commerce d’or très actif, à partir de 1968. Les importations d’or valaient environ 56 millions de GBP. Cet or a été en grande partie réexporté – principalement vers des clients ayant reçu des livraisons dans des eaux internationales en dehors de l'Inde. Les importations d'or en Inde étant interdites, le commerce était qualifié de contrebande, bien que les acheteurs à Dubaï aient rapidement remarqué qu'ils s'approvisionnaient légalement en or et qu'il incombait au client de décider du lieu où il se rendait.(47)

En 1966, il y avait plus d'or envoyé de Londres à Dubaï que presque partout ailleurs dans le monde (seules la France et la Suisse en prenaient plus), à hauteur de 4 millions d'onces. Dubaï a également reçu des montres d’une valeur supérieure à 15 millions de dollars et à plus de 5 millions d’onces d’argent. Prix ​​de l'or à partir de 1967. C'était 35 USD par once, mais son prix de marché en Inde était de 68 USD par once – une marge saine. Les estimations à cette époque indiquaient que le volume des importations d'or de Dubaï en Inde représentait environ 75% du marché total.(48)

L'ère du pétrole

Après des années de recherche de grandes découvertes à Abu Dhabi, pays voisin, du pétrole a finalement été découvert dans les eaux territoriales de Dubaï en 1966, mais en quantités bien moindres. Le premier domaine s'appelait "Fateh" ou "chance". Cela a conduit à l'accélération des plans de développement des infrastructures de Sheikh Rashid et au boom de la construction, qui a entraîné un afflux massif de travailleurs étrangers, principalement asiatiques et du Moyen-Orient. Entre 1968 et 1975, la population de la ville a augmenté de plus de 300%.(49)

Dans le cadre de l'infrastructure de pompage et de transport du pétrole du champ de Fateh, situé près du quartier de Jebel Ali à Dubaï, deux réservoirs de stockage de 500 000 gallons ont été construits, connus localement sous le nom de "Kazzans".(50) les souder ensemble sur la plage, puis les déterrer et les soulever au bas du champ Fateh. Ils ont été construits par la Chicago Bridge et la Iron Company, qui ont donné à la plage un nom local (Chicago Beach), qui a été transféré au Chicago Beach Hotel, qui a été démoli et remplacé par le Jumeirah Beach Hotel à la fin des années 90. Les kazzans constituaient une solution innovante pour le stockage de pétrole. Ainsi, les super-pétroliers pouvaient amarrer en mer même par mauvais temps et éviter de drainer les hydrocarbures du continent de Fateh, situé à environ 60 milles de la mer.(51)

Dubaï a déjà commencé la période de développement et d’extension de l’infrastructure. Les recettes pétrolières, en circulation depuis 1969, ont favorisé la période de croissance. Cheikh Rashid a commencé la politique de construction d'infrastructures et d'une économie commerciale diversifiée avant que les ressources limitées de l'émirat ne soient épuisées. Le pétrole brut représentait 24% du PIB en 1990, mais en 2004, il était tombé à 7% du PIB.(10)

Chose critique, l’un des premiers grands projets lancés par Sheikh Rashid lorsque les revenus pétroliers ont commencé à couler a été la construction de Port Rashid, un port sans eau construit par la société britannique Halcrow. À l'origine, ce port était censé être un port à quatre places. Il a été étendu à seize places de stationnement, car il s'agissait d'une construction permanente. Le projet s'est avéré être un succès unique, car la mise en file d'attente des colis avait accès à de nouvelles installations. Le port a été inauguré le 5 octobre 1972. Bien que ses amarres aient été pressées d’être utilisées dès leur construction. Le port de Rashid devait encore être agrandi en 1975. Il fallait ajouter 35 places supplémentaires avant la construction du plus grand port de Jebel Ali.(10)

Port Rashid était le premier de nombreux projets visant à créer une infrastructure commerciale moderne, notamment des routes, des ponts, des écoles et des hôpitaux.(52)

Atteindre la loi sur la conformité des EAU

Dubaï et d'autres "états provinciaux" sont depuis longtemps un protectorat britannique dans lequel le gouvernement britannique s'est occupé de politique étrangère et de défense, ainsi que d'un arbitrage entre les dirigeants de l'est du golfe, à la suite du traité signé en 1892 "Exclusivité". Accord & # 39;. Cela devait changer après l'annonce par le Premier ministre Harold Wilson, le 16 janvier 1968, que toutes les troupes britanniques seraient retirées de la "région orientale". Il a été décidé de séparer les émirats côtiers, ainsi que Qatar et Bahreïn, de négociations houleuses pour combler le vide politique laissé par le retrait britannique.(53)

Le principe de l'unification a été convenu le 18 février 1968 entre le souverain d'Abou Dhabi, cheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan et Sheikh Rashid de Dubaï. Dans le camp d'Argoub Al Sedirah, près d'Al Semeih, une escale dans le désert entre deux émirats.(54) Les deux ont accepté de travailler pour amener d'autres émirats, dont le Qatar et le Bahreïn, à l'Union. Au cours des deux années suivantes, les négociations et les réunions des dirigeants ont eu lieu, souvent orageuses, comme une forme de syndicat brisée. L'union de neuf États n'a jamais retrouvé sa force après la réunion d'octobre 1969, au cours de laquelle une lourde intervention britannique a entraîné l'abandon de Qatar et de Ras Al Khaimah.(43) Bahreïn et Qatar ont démissionné des pourparlers, laissant six des sept émigrés "truciaux" accepter les relations le 18 juillet 1971.(55)

Le 2 décembre 1971, Dubaï ainsi qu'Abou Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain et Fujairah ont adhéré à l'Union Act, créant ainsi les Émirats arabes unis. Le septième émirat, Ras Al Khaimah, a rejoint les EAU le 10 février 1972, après l'annexion par l'Iran des îles Troi, qui étaient visées par la plainte.(56)

En 1973, Dubaï a rejoint d’autres émirats pour adopter une monnaie unique: le dirham des Émirats arabes unis.(39) La même année, la précédente union monétaire avec le Qatar était dissoute et le Dirham UAE était introduit dans tous les Émirats.(57)

Dubaï moderne

Dubai Palm Jumeirah et Marina en 2011

Dans les années 1970, Dubaï a continué à se développer grâce aux revenus générés par le pétrole et le commerce, même lorsque la ville a enregistré un afflux d'immigrants fuyant la guerre civile au Liban.(58) Les conflits frontaliers entre les émirats se sont poursuivis même après la création des Émirats arabes unis; ce n'est qu'en 1979 qu'un compromis formel a été atteint qui a mis fin aux malentendus.(59) Port Jebel Ali a été fondée en 1979. JAFZA (zone franche de Jebel Ali) a été construite autour du port en 1985 pour fournir aux entreprises étrangères une importation illimitée de main-d'œuvre et un capital d'exportation.(60) L'aéroport de Dubaï et le secteur de l'aviation se développaient également.

La guerre du Golfe en 1990 a eu un impact financier négatif sur la ville, car les déposants ont retiré leur argent et les commerçants ont retiré leur commerce. Mais plus tard, la ville a repris de la vigueur dans un climat politique changeant et a prospéré. Plus tard dans les années 1990, de nombreuses communautés de commerce extérieur – d'abord du Koweït, pendant la guerre du Golfe, puis de Bahreïn pendant les émeutes chiites – ont transféré leurs activités à Dubaï.(61) Dubaï a fourni des bases pour le ravitaillement en carburant des forces alliées dans la zone libre de Djebel Ali pendant la guerre du Golfe et lors de l’invasion de l’Iraq en 2003. La forte hausse des prix du pétrole après la guerre du Golfe a encouragé Dubaï à continuer de se concentrer sur le libre-échange et le tourisme.(62)

géographie

Ce film accéléré montre le taux de croissance de Dubaï en une image par an de 2000 à 2011. Sur les fausses couleurs des images satellites qui composent la vidéo, le désert vide est brun, le sol recouvert de plante est rouge, l’eau est noire et les zones urbaines sont argentées.

Dunes à la périphérie de la ville

Dubaï est située sur la côte du golfe Persique aux Émirats arabes unis et se situe plus ou moins au niveau de la mer (16 m ou 52 pi au-dessus). L'émirat de Dubaï est bordé par Abu Dhabi au sud, Sharjah au nord-est et le Sultanat d'Oman au sud-est. Hatta, une petite enclave de l'émirat, est entourée sur trois côtés par Oman et les émirats d'Ajman (à l'ouest) et de Ras Al Khaimah (au nord). Le golfe Persique est bordé par la côte ouest de l'émirat. Dubaï est sur 25 ° 16'11 "N 55 ° 18'34 "E/25,2693 ° N 55,3095 ° E/ 25,2697; 55,3095 et couvre une superficie de 4 110 km2), ce qui représente une expansion importante au-delà des 1 500 milles carrés (3900 km2) désignation en raison de la mise en valeur des terres de la mer.(devis obligatoire)

Dubaï se trouve directement dans le désert d’Arabie. Toutefois, la topographie de Dubaï diffère considérablement de celle du sud des Émirats arabes unis, car une grande partie du paysage de Dubaï est accentuée par les motifs du désert de sable tandis que les déserts de gravier dominent le sud du pays.(63) Le sable se compose principalement de coquilles et de coraux émiettés et est propre, pur et blanc. À l'est de la ville, les croûtes de sel des plaines côtières, connues sous le nom de sebkha, cédez le passage aux dunes nord-sud. Plus à l'est, les dunes sont élargies et sont colorées en rouge avec de l'oxyde de fer.(49)

Le désert de sable plat cède la place aux monts Hajar occidentaux, qui longent la frontière entre Dubaï et Oman à Hatta. La chaîne de l'ouest de Hajar a un paysage sec, déchiqueté et brisé, dont les montagnes s'élèvent à environ 1 300 mètres (4 265 pieds) à certains endroits. Dubaï n'a pas de corps fluvial naturel ni d'oasis; Dubaï, cependant, a une crique naturelle, la crique de Dubaï, qui a été approfondie pour être suffisamment profonde pour permettre le passage de gros navires. A Dubaï, il existe également de nombreuses gorges et points d'eau qui forment la base des montagnes occidentales d'Al Hajar. La vaste mer de dunes couvre une partie importante du sud de Dubaï et mène finalement au désert appelé le district vide. Sismique, Dubaï est située dans une zone très stable – la ligne de faille sismique la plus proche, la faille de Zagros, est située à 200 kilomètres des Émirats arabes unis et n’aura probablement pas d’impact sismique sur Dubaï.(64) Les experts prédisent également que la possibilité de tsunamis dans la région est minime, car les eaux du golfe Persique ne sont pas assez profondes pour provoquer des tsunamis.(64)

Le désert de sable entourant la ville supporte des herbes sauvages et des palmiers dattiers occasionnels. Les jacinthes du désert poussent dans sebkha plaines à l'est de la ville, tandis que les acacias et les ghafs poussent sur des plaines plates proches des montagnes d'Al-Hajar. Plusieurs arbres naturels, tels que le palmier dattier et le neem, ainsi que des arbres importés, tels que l'eucalyptus, poussent dans les parcs naturels de Dubaï. Le houbara, les bandes d'hyène, les caracals, les renards du désert, les faucons et les oryx arabes sont fréquents dans le désert de Dubaï. Dubaï est sur le chemin de la migration entre l’Europe, l’Asie et l’Afrique et plus de 320 espèces d’oiseaux migrateurs traversent l’émirat au printemps et à l’automne. Les eaux de Dubaï abritent plus de 300 espèces de poissons, y compris le hammour. La vie marine typique au large de Dubaï inclut les poissons tropicaux, les méduses, les coraux, les dugongs, les dauphins, les baleines et les requins. Dans cette zone, vous pouvez rencontrer différents types de tortues, y compris la tortue faucon et la tortue verte, qui sont répertoriées comme des espèces en voie de disparition.(65)(66)

La baie de Dubaï traverse la ville au nord-est / sud-ouest. La partie orientale de la ville forme le village de Deira et est entourée de l'émirat de Sharjah à l'est et de la ville d'Al Aweer au sud. L'aéroport international de Dubaï est situé au sud de Deira et Palm Deira est situé au nord de Deira, dans le golfe Persique. Une grande partie du boom immobilier à Dubaï est concentrée à l'ouest de la crique de Dubaï, sur la ceinture côtière de Jumeirah. Vous trouverez dans cette section Port Rashid, Jebel Ali, Burj Al Arab, Palm Jumeirah et des groupes thématiques exempts de droits, tels que Business Bay.(67) Dubaï se distingue par des complexes artificiels sculptés d’îles, notamment Palm Islands et The World Archipelago.

climat

Dubaï a un climat chaud et désertique. Les années à Dubaï sont très chaudes, venteuses et humides, avec une moyenne haute autour de 41 ° C et des nuits basses autour de 30 ° C le mois le plus chaud du mois d'août. La plupart des jours sont ensoleillés toute l'année. Les hivers sont relativement froids, avec une température moyenne de 24 ° C et des nuits basses de 14 ° C en janvier, le mois le plus froid. Les précipitations ont toutefois augmenté au cours des dernières décennies et les précipitations accumulées ont atteint 110,7 mm (4,36 pouces) par an.(68) Les années à Dubaï sont également connues pour des taux d'humidité très élevés, ce qui peut être très inconfortable pour beaucoup avec des points de rosée exceptionnellement élevés en été.(69) La température la plus élevée enregistrée à Dubaï est de 48,4 ° C (119 ° F), atteinte en juillet 1996.(70)

Données climatiques pour Dubaï
mois janvier février détruire avril peut-être juin juillet août septembre octobre novembre décembre année
Record haut ° C (° F) 31,6
(88,9)
37.5
(99,5)
41,3
(106,3)
43,5
(110,3)
47,0
(116,6)
46,7
(116,1)
49,0
(120,2)
48,7
(119,7)
45,1
(113,2)
42,0
(107,6)
41,0
(105,8)
35,5
(95,9)
49,0
(120,2)
Moyenne haute ° C (° F) 23,9
(75,0)
25.4
(77,7)
28,3
(82,9)
33,0
(91,4)
37,7
(99,9)
39,5
(103,1)
40,9
(105,6)
41,3
(106,3)
38,9
(102,0)
35,4
(95,7)
30,6
(87,1)
26.2
(79,2)
33,4
(92,2)
Moyenne journalière ° C (° F) 19.1
(66,4)
20.5
(68,9)
23,0
(73,4)
27,0
(80,6)
31,4
(88,5)
33,4
(92,1)
35,5
(95,9)
35,9
(96,6)
33.3
(91,9)
29,8
(85,6)
25.4
(77,7)
21.2
(70,2)
28,0
(82,3)
Moyenne basse ° C (° F) 14.3
(57,7)
15,5
(59,9)
17.7
(63,9)
21,0
(69,8)
25,1
(77,2)
27,3
(81,1)
30,0
(86,0)
30,4
(86,7)
27,7
(81,9)
24.1
(75,4)
20.1
(68,2)
16.3
(61,3)
22.5
(72,4)
Record bas ° C (° F) 1.5
(34,7)
6.9
(44,4)
9.0
(48,2)
13.4
(56,1)
15.1
(59,2)
18.2
(64,8)
20.4
(68,7)
23,1
(73,6)
16,5
(61,7)
15.0
(59,0)
11,8
(53,2)
8.2
(46,8)
1.5
(34,7)
Précipitations moyennes en mm 18.8
(0,74)
25,0
(0,98)
22,1
(0,87)
7.2
(0,28)
0,4
(0,02)
0,0
(0,0)
0,8
(0,03)
0,0
(0,0)
0,0
(0,0)
1.1
(0,04)
2.7
(0,11)
16.2
(0,64)
94,3
(3,71)
Nombre moyen de précipitations 5.5 4.7 5.8 2.6 0,3 0,0 0,5 0,5 0,1 0,2 1.3 3.8 25,3
Moyenne mensuelle d'ensoleillement 251 241 270 306 350 345 332 326 309 307 279 254 3570
Heures journalières moyennes du soleil 8.1 8.6 8.7 10.2 11.3 11.5 10,7 10.5 10.3 9.9 9.3 8.2 9.8
Source n ° 1: Office météorologique de Dubaï(71)
Source n ° 2: Centre national de météorologie des Emirats Arabes Unis(72)

Management et politique

Dubaï est dirigée par la famille Al Maktoum depuis 1833; L'émirat est une monarchie constitutionnelle. Les citoyens de Dubaï participent au collège électoral pour voter pour des représentants du Conseil national fédéral des Émirats arabes unis. Le souverain, son Altesse le cheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, est également vice-président et premier ministre des Émirats arabes unis et membre du Conseil suprême de l'Union (CSU). Dubaï nommera 8 membres en deux périodes au Conseil national fédéral (FNC) des Émirats arabes unis, l'organe législatif fédéral le plus élevé.(73)

La municipalité de Dubaï (DM) a été fondée par le souverain de Dubaï à l'époque, Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, en 1954. Afin de planifier la ville, de servir les citoyens et d'entretenir les installations locales.(74) DM est présidé par Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, gouverneur adjoint de Dubaï, et comprend plusieurs départements tels que le Département des routes, le Département de la planification et des enquêtes, le Département de l'environnement et de la santé publique et le Département des affaires financières. En 2001, la municipalité de Dubaï a commencé à mettre en œuvre le projet d'administration en ligne dans le but de fournir 40 de ses services urbains via le portail Internet (dubai.ae). Treize de ces services ont été lancés en octobre 2001 et plusieurs autres devaient l'être à l'avenir.(75) La municipalité de Dubaj est également responsable des infrastructures d’assainissement et d’assainissement de la ville.(76)

Les EAU ont un ministre du bonheur, nommé par Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum. Les Émirats arabes unis ont également nommé un ministre de la Tolérance chargé de promouvoir la tolérance en tant que valeur fondamentale des Émirats arabes unis, un pays peuplé de confessions et de groupes ethniques divers.(77) et le ministre de la jeunesse.(78)

Application de la loi

La police de Dubaï, fondée en 1956. Dans la ville de Naif, la juridiction est située sur l'émirat. Les forces sont sous le commandement direct de Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum.(devis obligatoire)

Dubaï et Ras al Khaimah sont les seuls émirats à ne pas correspondre au système judiciaire fédéral des Émirats arabes unis.(79) Les tribunaux de l'émirat comprennent le tribunal de première instance, la cour d'appel et la cour de cassation. Le tribunal de première instance comprend un tribunal civil qui reconnaît toutes les actions civiles; un tribunal pénal qui traite les plaintes résultant de plaintes de la police; et le tribunal de la charia, qui est responsable des affaires entre musulmans. Les non-musulmans ne comparaissent pas devant le tribunal de la charia. La Cour de cassation est la plus haute juridiction de l'émirat et elle ne reconnaît les différends qu'en matière juridique.(80)

Droits de l'alcool

La vente et la consommation d'alcool, bien que légale, sont réglementées. Les adultes non musulmans sont autorisés à consommer de l'alcool dans des établissements agréés, généralement dans des hôtels ou à la maison avec un permis d'alcool. Les lieux autres que les hôtels, les clubs et les lieux spécialement désignés ne peuvent généralement pas vendre d’alcool.(81) Comme dans d’autres parties du monde, l’alcool au volant est illégal et l’abus d'alcool est légal à Dubaï depuis 21 ans.(82)

Droits de l'homme

Les entreprises de Dubaï ont toujours été critiquées pour avoir violé les droits humains des travailleurs.(83)(84)(85) Certains des 250 000 travailleurs étrangers dans la ville vivraient dans les conditions décrites par Human Rights Watch comme "moins qu'humaines".(86)(87)(88)(89) Les mauvais traitements de travailleurs étrangers ont fait l’objet d’un document difficile à établir, Esclaves à Dubaï (2009).(90) Le gouvernement de Dubaï a nié les injustices du travail et a conclu que les accusations de la garde (Human Rights Watch) étaient "fausses". Le cinéaste a expliqué en entrevue comment se cacher pour éviter d'être découvert par les autorités qui infligent de lourdes amendes aux journalistes qui tentent de documenter des violations des droits humains, y compris les conditions de travail des ouvriers du bâtiment. Fin mars 2006, le gouvernement a annoncé des mesures visant à autoriser la création de syndicats. Le ministre du Travail des Emirats arabes unis, Ali al-Kaabi, a déclaré: "Les travailleurs seront en mesure de créer des relations."(91)

La liberté de parole à Dubaï est limitée car citoyens et citoyens sont passibles de sanctions sévères de la part du gouvernement pour avoir prononcé un jugement contre une famille royale ou contre les lois et la culture locales.(92) La plupart des travailleurs à bas salaire sont victimes de trafic d'êtres humains ou de travail forcé, tandis que certaines femmes sont même introduites en fraude dans le trafic croissant à Dubaï, un centre de trafic et de prostitution.(93)

Taux de criminalité

Dubaï a l'un des taux de criminalité les plus bas au monde,(94) en 2018, elle a été placée dans la huitième ville la plus sûre au monde.(95)(96)(97)(98) L'Agence de réglementation du secteur de la sécurité a classé les infractions dans six catégories.(99) Ces crimes comprennent le vol, le vol forcé, le cambriolage, la fraude, les agressions sexuelles, les abus et les dommages-intérêts punitifs.(99)

Comme pour Gulf News, Policja w Dubaju oświadczyła, że ​​przestępczość w Dubaju zmniejszyła się o 15% w 2017 r. Jednak przypadki działania narkotyków wzrosły o osiem procent. Generał dywizji Abdullah Khalifa Al Merri, głównodowodzący policji w Dubaju, przywołał siły, które rozwiązały 86 procent spraw karnych.(100)

Statystyki pokazały również, że przestępstwa zabójstw spadły z 0,5 w 2016 r. Do 0,3 w 2017 r. Na każde 100 000 ludności, podczas gdy brutalne i agresywne przestępstwa w ciągu ostatnich 5 lat przeszły z 2,2 przestępstw na 100 000 i spadły do ​​1,2 do końca 2017 r., Wskazał Al Mansouri.(94) Ogólne przestępstwa zmniejszyły się od 2013 r., Odnotowując około 0,2 do końca 2017 r. Rabunki wzrosły z 3,8 w 2013 r. Do 2,1 do końca ubiegłego roku, podczas gdy przypadki porwania spadły z 0,2 w 2013 r. Do 0,1 w 2017 r.(95)

Kradzieże pojazdów w 2013 r. Wyniosły 3,8 na 100 000 ludności i spadły do ​​1,7 w 2017 r.(95) All the stolen vehicles were also recovered after being smuggled to neighboring countries, in cooperation with the competent authorities there.(95) According to the US Bureau of Diplomatic Security, petty theft, pick pocketing, scams, and sexual harassment still occur although they are usually not violent and weapons are not involved.(101)

Demographics

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1822(102) 1,200
1900(103) 10 000 +733.3%
1930(104) 20,000 +100.0%
1940(102) 38,000 +90.0%
1960(105) 40,000 +5.3%
1968(106) 58,971 +47.4%
1975(107) 183,000 +210.3%
1985(108) 370,800 +102.6%
1995(108) 674,000 +81.8%
2005 1,204,000 +78.6%
2014 2,250,000 +86.9%
2016 2,502,715 +11.2%
c-census; e-estimate

Ethnicity and languages

According to the census conducted by the Statistics Centre of Dubai, the population of the emirate was 1,771,000 as of 2009, which included 1,370,000 males and 401,000 females.(109) As of June 2017, the population is 2,789,000.(110) The region covers 1,287.5 square kilometres (497.1 sq mi). The population density is 408.18/km2 – more than eight times that of the entire country. Dubai is the second most expensive city in the region and 20th most expensive city in the world.(111)

As of 2013, only about 15% of the population of the emirate was made up of UAE nationals,(112) with the rest comprising expatriates, many of whom either have been in the country for generations or were born in the UAE.(113)(114) Approximately 85% of the expatriate population (and 71% of the emirate's total population) was Asian, chiefly Indian (51%) and Pakistani (16%); other significant Asian groups include Bangladeshis (9%) and Filipinos (3%). There is a sizable community of Somalis numbering around 30,000, as well as other communities of various nationalities.(115) A quarter of the population (local and foreign) reportedly traces their origins to Iran.(116) In addition, 16% of the population (or 288,000 persons) living in collective labour accommodation were not identified by ethnicity or nationality, but were thought to be primarily Asian.(117) There are over 100,000 British expatriates in Dubai, by far the largest group of Western expatriates in the city.(118) The median age in the emirate was about 27 years. In 2014, there were estimated to be 15.54 births and 1.99 deaths per 1,000 people.(119) There are other Arab nationals, including GCC nationals.(wymagany cytat)

Arabic is the national and official language of the United Arab Emirates. The Gulf dialect of Arabic is spoken natively by the Emirati people.(120) English is used as a second language. Other major languages spoken in Dubai due to immigration are Malayalam, Hindi-Urdu (or Hindustani), Gujarati, Persian, Sindhi, Tamil, Punjabi, Pashto, Bengali, Balochi, Tulu,(121) Kannada, Sinhala, Marathi, Telugu, Tagalog and Chinese, in addition to many other languages.(122)

Religion

Article 7 of the UAE's Provisional Constitution declares Islam the official state religion of the UAE. The government subsidises almost 95% of mosques and employs all Imams; approximately 5% of mosques are entirely private, and several large mosques have large private endowments.(123) All mosques in Dubai are managed by the Islamic Affairs and Charitable Activities Department also known as "Awqaf" under the Government of Dubai and all Imams are appointed by the Government.(124) The Constitution of the United Arab Emirates provides for freedom of religion. Any person held preaching religious hatred or promoting religious extremism is usually jailed and deported.(125)

Dubai has large Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Bahá'í, Buddhist and other religious communities residing in the city.(126)

Non-Muslim groups can own their own houses of worship, where they can practice their religion freely, by requesting a land grant and permission to build a compound. Groups that do not have their own buildings are allowed to use the facilities of other religious organisations or worship in private homes.(127) Non-Muslim religious groups are also permitted to advertise group functions openly and distribute various religious literature. Catholics are served pastorally by the Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Arabia. British preacher Reverend Andrew Thompson claimed that the United Arab Emirates is one of the most tolerant places in the world towards Christians, and that it is easier to be a Christian in the UAE, than in the UK.(128)

Economy

One of the world's fastest growing economies,(129) Dubai's gross domestic product is projected at US$107.1 billion, with a growth rate of 6.1% in 2014.(130) Although a number of core elements of Dubai's trading infrastructure were built on the back of the oil industry,(131) revenues from oil and natural gas account for less than 5% of the emirate's revenues.(12) It is estimated that Dubai produces 50,000 to 70,000 barrels (7,900 to 11,100 m3) of oil a day(132) and substantial quantities of gas from offshore fields. The emirate's share in the UAE's total gas revenues is about 2%. Dubai's oil reserves have diminished significantly and are expected to be exhausted in 20 years.(133) Real estate and construction (22.6%),(14) trade (16%), entrepôt (15%) and financial services (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy.(134)

Dubai's non-oil foreign trade stood at $362 billion in 2014. Of the overall trade volumes, imports had the biggest share with a value of $230 billion while exports and re-exports to the emirate stood at $31 billion and $101 billion respectively.(135)

By 2014, China had emerged as Dubai's largest international trading partner, with a total of $47.7 billion in trade flows, up 29% from 2013. India was second among Dubai's key trading partners with a trade of $29.7 billion, followed by the United States at $22.62 billion. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was Dubai's fourth trading partner globally and first in the GCC and Arab world with a total trade value of $14.2 billion. Trade with Germany in 2014 totalled $12.3, Switzerland and Japan both at $11.72 billion and UK trade totalled $10.9 billion.(135)

Historically, Dubai and its twin across Dubai Creek, Deira (independent of Dubai City at that time), were important ports of call for Western manufacturers. Most of the new city's banking and financial centres were headquartered in the port area. Dubai maintained its importance as a trade route through the 1970s and 1980s. Dubai has a free trade in gold and, until the 1990s, was the hub of a "brisk smuggling trade"(39) of gold ingots to India, where gold import was restricted. Dubai's Jebel Ali port, constructed in the 1970s, has the largest man-made harbour in the world and was ranked seventh globally for the volume of container traffic it supports.(136) Dubai is also a hub for service industries such as information technology and finance, with industry-specific free zones throughout the city.(137) Dubai Internet City, combined with Dubai Media City as part of TECOM (Dubai Technology, Electronic Commerce and Media Free Zone Authority), is one such enclave, whose members include IT firms such as Hewlett Packard Enterprise, HP Inc., Google, EMC Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Microsoft, Dell and IBM, and media organisations such as MBC, CNN, BBC, Reuters, Sky News and AP.(wymagany cytat)

Dubai Creek, which separates Deira from Bur Dubai, played a vital role in the economic development of the city

The government's decision to diversify from a trade-based, oil-reliant economy to one that is service- and tourism-oriented made property more valuable, resulting in the property appreciation from 2004 to 2006. A longer-term assessment of Dubai's property market, however, showed depreciation; some properties lost as much as 64% of their value from 2001 to November 2008.(138) The large-scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the tallest skyscrapers and largest projects in the world such as the Emirates Towers, the Burj Khalifa, the Palm Islands and the most expensive hotel, the Burj Al Arab.(139) Dubai's property market experienced a major downturn in 2008(140) and 2009 as a result of the slowing economic climate.(84) By early 2009, the situation had worsened with the Great Recession taking a heavy toll on property values, construction and employment.(141) This has had a major impact on property investors in the region, some of whom were unable to release funds from investments made in property developments.(142) As of February 2009, Dubai's foreign debt was estimated at approximately $80 billion, although this is a tiny fraction of the sovereign debt worldwide.(143) Dubai real estate and UAE property experts believe that by avoiding the mistakes of the past, Dubai's realty market can achieve stability in the future.(144)

The Dubai Financial Market (DFM) was established in March 2000 as a secondary market for trading securities and bonds, both local and foreign. As of fourth quarter 2006, its trading volume stood at about 400 billion shares, worth $95 billion in total. The DFM had a market capitalisation of about $87 billion.(117) The other Dubai-based stock exchange is NASDAQ Dubai, which is the international stock exchange in the Middle East. It enables a range of companies, including UAE and regional small and medium-sized enterprises, to trade on an exchange with an international brand name, with access by both regional and international investors.(145)

DMCC (Dubai Multi Commodities Centre) was established in 2002. It's world's fastest growing free zone and been nominated as "Global Free Zone of the Year 2016" by The Financial Times fDi Magazine.

Dubai is also known as the City of Gold, because a major part of the economy is based on gold trades, with Dubai's total gold trading volumes in H1 2011 reaching 580 tonnes, with an average price of US$1,455 per troy ounce.(146)

PAR City Mayors survey ranked Dubai 44th among the world's best financial cities in 2007,(147) while another report by City Mayors indicated that Dubai was the world's 27th richest city in 2012, in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP).(148) Dubai is also an international financial centre (IFC) and has been ranked 37th within the top 50 global financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index (2007),(149) and 1st within the Middle East. Since it opened in September 2004, the Dubai IFC has attracted, as a regional hub, leading international firms and set-up the NASDAQ Dubai which lists equity, derivatives, structured products, Islamic bonds (sukuk) and other bonds. The Dubai IFC model is an independent risk-based regulator with a legislative system consistent with English common law.(150)

In 2012, the Global City Competitiveness Index by the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Dubai at No. 40 with a total score of 55.9. According to its 2013 research report on the future competitiveness of cities, in 2025, Dubai will have moved up to 23rd place overall in the Index.(151) Indians, followed by Britons and Pakistanis are the top foreign investors in Dubai realty.(152)

Dubai has launched several major projects to support its economy and develop different sectors. These include Dubai Fashion 2020,(153) and Dubai Design District, expected to become a home to leading local and international designers. The AED 4 billion first phase of the project will be complete by January 2015.(154)

Tourism and retail

Tourism is an important part of the Dubai government's strategy to maintain the flow of foreign cash into the emirate. Dubai's lure for tourists is based mainly on shopping,(155)(156) but also on its possession of other ancient and modern attractions.(157) As of 2018, Dubai is the fourth most-visited city in the world based on the number of international visitors and the fastest growing, increasing by a 10.7% rate.(158) The city hosted 14.9 million overnight visitors in 2016, and is expected to reach 20 million tourists by 2020.(159)

Dubai has been called the "shopping capital of the Middle East".(160) Dubai alone has more than 70 shopping centres, including the world's largest shopping centre, Dubai Mall. Dubai is also known for the historical souk districts located on either side of its creek. Traditionally, dhows from East Asia, China, Sri Lanka, and India would discharge their cargo and the goods would be bargained over in the souks adjacent to the docks. Dubai Creek played a vital role in sustaining the life of the community in the city and was the resource which originally drove the economic boom in Dubai.(161) As of September 2013, Dubai creek has been proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.(162) Many boutiques and jewellery stores are also found in the city. Dubai is also referred to as "the City of Gold" as the Gold Souk in Deira houses nearly 250 gold retail shops.(163)

Dubai Creek Park in Dubai Creek also plays a vital role in Dubai tourism as it showcase some of the most famous tourist attractions in Dubai such as Dolphinarium, Cable Car, Camel Ride, Horse Carriage and Exotic Birds Shows.(164)

Dubai has a wide range of parks like Safa park, Mushrif park, Hamriya park etc. Each park is uniquely distinct from the other. Mushrif park showcases different houses around the world. A visitor can check out the architectural features of the outside as well as the inside of each house.

Some of the most popular beaches in Dubai are Umm Suqeim Beach, Al Mamzar Beach Park, JBR Open Beach, Kite Beach, Black Palace Beach and Royal Island Beach Club.

Expo 2020

On 2 November 2011, four cities had their bids for Expo 2020 already lodged, with Dubai making a last-minute entry. The delegation from the Bureau International des Expositions, which visited Dubai in February 2013 to examine the Emirate's readiness for the largest exposition, was impressed by the infrastructure and the level of national support. In May 2013, Dubai Expo 2020 Master Plan was revealed.(165) Dubai then won the right to host Expo 2020 on 27 November 2013.(166) The event will bring huge economic benefits by generating activities worth billions of dirhams and may create over 270,000 jobs.(167)

The main site of Dubai Expo 2020 will be a 438-hectare area (1,083 acres), part of the new Dubai Trade Centre Jebel Ali urban development, located midway between Dubai and Abu Dhabi.(168) Moreover, the Expo 2020 also created various social enlistment projects and monetary boons to the city targeting the year 2020. Such as initiating the world's largest solar project,(169) the real estate upsurge, to focus on the GDP growth and to make Dubai a "Happy Dubai" for the people of the city.(170)

Cityscapes

Dubai skyline
Dubai skyline

Architecture

Dubai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. Many modern interpretations of Islamic architecture can be found here, due to a boom in construction and architectural innovation in the Arab World in general, and in Dubai in particular, supported not only by top Arab or international architectural and engineering design firms such as Al Hashemi and Aedas, but also by top firms of New York and Chicago.(171) As a result of this boom, modern Islamic – and world – architecture has literally been taken to new levels in skyscraper building design and technology. Dubai now has more completed or topped-out skyscrapers higher than 23 km (2,200 ft), 13 km (1,100 ft), or 14 km (820 ft) than any other city. A culmination point was reached in 2010 with the completion of the Burj Khalifa (Khalifa Tower), now by far the world's tallest building at 829.8 m (2,722 ft). The Burj Khalifa's design is derived from the patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture, with the triple-lobed footprint of the building based on an abstracted version of the desert flower hymenocallis which is native to the Dubai region.(172)

The completion of the Khalifa Tower, following the construction boom that began in the 1980s, accelerated in the 1990s, and took on a rapid pace of construction unparalleled in modern human history during the decade of the 2000s, leaves Dubai with the world's tallest skyline as of 4 January 2010.(173)(174) At the Top, Burj Khalifa, the world's highest observatory deck with an outdoor terrace is one of Dubai's most popular tourist attractions, with over 1.87 million visitors in 2013.(175)

Burj Al Arab

The Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب, Tower of the Arabs), a luxury hotel, is frequently described as "the world's only 7-star", though its management has said it has never made that claim. A Jumeirah Group spokesperson is quoted as saying: "There's not a lot we can do to stop it. We're not encouraging the use of the term. We've never used it in our advertising."(176) The hotel opened in December 1999.

Burj Khalifa

Dubai Police Agusta A-109K-2 in flight near Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa, known as the Burj Dubai before its inauguration, is a 828 metres (2,717 ft) high(177) skyscraper in Dubai, and the tallest building in the world. The tower was inspired by the structure of the desert flower Hymenocallis. It was constructed by more than 30 contracting companies around the world with workers of a hundred nationalities. It is an architectural icon. The building opened in 2010.(178)

Palm Jumeirah

The Palm Jumeirah is an artificial archipelago, created using land reclamation by Nakheel, a company owned by the Dubai government, and designed and developed by Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Architects, Inc. It is one of three planned islands called the Palm Islands which extend into the Persian Gulf. The Palm Jumeirah is the smallest and the original of three Palm Islands, and it is located on the Jumeirah coastal area of Dubai. It was built between 2001 and 2006.(179)

Dubai Miracle Garden

On 14 February 2013, the Dubai Miracle Garden, a 72,000-metre (236,000-foot) flower garden, opened in Dubailand. It is the world's largest flower garden. The garden has a total of 45 million flowers with re-use of waste water through drip irrigation. During the summer seasons from late May to September when the climate can get extremely hot with an average high of about 40 °C (104 °F), the garden stays closed.(180)(181)

Transportation

Transport in Dubai is controlled by the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA), an agency of the government of Dubai, formed by royal decree in 2005.(185) The public transport network has in the past faced congestion and reliability issues which a large investment programme has addressed, including over AED 70 billion of improvements planned for completion by 2020, when the population of the city is projected to exceed 3.5 million.(186) In 2009, according to Dubai Municipality statistics, there were an estimated 1,021,880 cars in Dubai.(187) In January 2010, the number of Dubai residents who use public transport stood at 6%.(188)

Road

Five main routes – E 11 (Sheikh Zayed Road), E 311 (Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Road), E 44 (Dubai-Hatta Highway), E 77 (Dubai-Al Habab Road) and E 66 (Oud Metha Road, Dubai-Al Ain Road, or Tahnoun Bin Mohammad Al Nahyan Road)(189) – run through Dubai, connecting the city to other towns and emirates. Additionally, several important intra-city routes, such as D 89 (Al Maktoum Road/Airport Road), D 85 (Baniyas Road), D 75 (Sheikh Rashid Road), D 73 (Al Dhiyafa Road now named as 2 December street), D 94 (Jumeirah Road) and D 92 (Al Khaleej/Al Wasl Road) connect the various localities in the city. The eastern and western sections of the city are connected by Al Maktoum Bridge, Al Garhoud Bridge, Al Shindagha Tunnel, Business Bay Crossing and Floating Bridge.(190)

The Public Bus Transport system in Dubai is run by the RTA. The bus system services 140 routes and transported over 109 million people in 2008. By the end of 2010, there will be 2,100 buses in service across the city.(191) In 2006, the Transport authority announced the construction of 500 air-conditioned (A/C ) Passenger Bus Shelters, and planned for 1,000 more across the emirates in a move to encourage the use of public buses.(192)

All taxi services are licensed by the RTA. Dubai licensed taxis are easily identifiable by their cream bodywork colour and varied roof colours identifying the operator. Dubai Taxi Corporation, a division of the RTA, is the largest operator and has taxis with red roofs. There are five private operators: Metro Taxis (orange roofs); Network Taxis (yellow roofs); Cars Taxis (blue roofs); Arabia Taxis (green roofs); and City Taxis (purple roof). In addition, Dubai Taxi Corporation has a Ladies Taxi service, with pink roofs, which caters exclusively for female passengers, using female drivers. The Dubai International Airport taxi concession is operated by Dubai Taxi Corporation. There are more than 3000 taxis operating within the emirate making an average of 192,000 trips every day, carrying about 385,000 persons. In 2009 taxi trips exceeded 70 million trips serving around 140.45 million passengers.(193)(194)(195)

Air

Dubai International Airport (IATA: DXB), the hub for Emirates, serves the city of Dubai and other emirates in the country. The airport is the third-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic and the world's busiest airport by international passenger traffic.(196) In addition to being an important passenger traffic hub, the airport is the sixth-busiest cargo airport in world, handling 2.37 million tons of cargo in 2014.(197) Emirates is the national airline of Dubai. As of 2018, it operated internationally serving over 150 destinations in over 70 countries across six continents.(198)

The development of Al Maktoum International Airport (IATA: DWC) was announced in 2004. The first phase of the airport, featuring one A380 capable runway, 64 remote stands, one cargo terminal with annual capacity for 250,000 tonnes of cargo and a passenger terminal building designed to accommodate five million passengers per year, has been opened.(199) When completed, Dubai World Central-Al Maktoum International will be the largest airport in the world with five runways, four terminal buildings and capacity for 160 million passengers and 12 million tons of cargo.(200)

Metro rail

The $3.89 billion Dubai Metro project is operational. It consists of two lines (Red line and Green line) which run through the financial and residential areas of the city. The Metro system was partially opened on September 2009.(201) UK-based international service company Serco is responsible for operating the metro. The metro comprises the Green Line, which has 20 stations (8 underground, 12 elevated) and runs from the Etisalat Station to the Creek Station and the Red Line, the major back bone line, which has 29 stations (4 underground, 24 elevated and 1 at ground level) and runs from Rashidiya Station to UAE Xchange Station Jebel Ali. In July 2016 a contract was awarded to add a branch to the Red Line running to the EXPO 2020 site; this extension is due to open in April 2020. A Blue and a Purple Line have also been planned. The Dubai Metro (Green and Blue Lines) will have 70 km (43.5 mi) of track and 43 stations, 37 above ground and ten underground.(202) The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula.(182) All the trains run without a driver and are based on automatic navigation.(wymagany cytat)

Palm Jumeirah Monorail

The Palm Jumeirah Monorail is a monorail line on the Palm Jumeirah. It connects the Palm Jumeirah to the mainland, with a planned further extension to the Red Line of the Dubai Metro.(203) The line opened on 30 April 2009.(204) It is the first monorail in the Middle East.(205) Two tram systems are expected to be built in Dubai by 2011. The first is the Downtown Burj Khalifa Tram System and the second is the Al Sufouh Tram. The Downtown Burj Khalifa Tram System is a 4.6 km (2.9 mi) tram service that is planned to service the area around the Burj Khalifa, and the second tram will run 14.5 km (9.0 mi) along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates.(wymagany cytat)

Tram

A tramway located in Al Sufouh, Dubai, will run for 14.5 kilometres (9.0 miles) along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates with two interchanges with Dubai Metro's Red Line. The first section, a 10.6-kilometer (6.6 mi) long tram line which serves 11 stations, was opened on 11 November 2014, by H.H. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, The Vice-President and Prime Minister of UAE and Ruler of Dubai, with the line opening to the public at 6 am on 12 November 2014.(206)

High speed rail

Dubai has announced it will complete a link of the UAE high-speed rail system which will eventually hook up with the whole GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council, also known as Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf) and then possibly Europe. The High Speed Rail will serve passengers and cargo.(207)

Waterways

There are two major commercial ports in Dubai, Port Rashid and Port Jebel Ali. Port Jebel Ali is the world's largest man-made harbour, the biggest port in the Middle East,(208) and the 7th-busiest port in the world.(136) One of the more traditional methods of getting across Bur Dubai to Deira is by abras, small boats that ferry passengers across the Dubai Creek, between abra stations in Bastakiya and Baniyas Road.(209) The Marine Transport Agency has also implemented the Dubai Water Bus System. Water bus is a fully air conditioned boat service across selected destinations across the creek. One can also avail oneself of the tourist water bus facility in Dubai. Latest addition to the water transport system is the Water Taxi.(210)

Culture

The UAE culture mainly revolves around traditional Arab culture. The influence of Arab and Islamic culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine, and lifestyle is very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday and Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday and Sunday.(211) Prior to 2006, the weekend was Thursday-Friday.

Because of the touristic approach of many Dubaites in the entrepreneurial sector and the high standard of living, Dubai's culture has gradually evolved towards one of luxury, opulence, and lavishness with a high regard for leisure-related extravagance.(212)(213)(214) Annual entertainment events such as the Dubai Shopping Festival(215) (DSF) and Dubai Summer Surprises (DSS) attract over 4 million visitors from across the region and generate revenues in excess of $2.7 billion.(216)(217)

Meydan Beach Club, Jumeirah

Dubai is known for its nightlife. Clubs and bars are found mostly in hotels because of liquor laws. Le New York Times described Dubai as "the kind of city where you might run into Michael Jordan at the Buddha Bar or stumble across Naomi Campbell celebrating her birthday with a multiday bash".(218)

The city's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogeneous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals—first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indians and Pakistanis in the 1960s. In 2005, 84% of the population of metropolitan Dubai was foreign-born, about half of them from India.(115)

Major holidays in Dubai include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.(219)

The International Festivals and Events Association (IFEA), the world's leading events trade association, has crowned Dubai as IFEA World Festival and Event City, 2012 in the cities category with a population of more than one million.(220)(221) Large shopping malls in the city, such as Deira City Centre, Mirdiff City Centre, BurJuman, Mall of the Emirates, Dubai Mall (the world's largest) and Ibn Battuta Mall as well as traditional Dubai Gold Souk and other suki attract shoppers from the region.(222)

Cuisine

Arabic cuisine is very popular and is available everywhere in the city, from the small shawarma diners in Deira and Al Karama to the restaurants in Dubai's hotels. Fast food, South Asian, and Chinese cuisines are also very popular and are widely available. The sale and consumption of pork is regulated and is sold only to non-Muslims, in designated areas of supermarkets and airports.(223) Similarly, the sale of alcoholic beverages is regulated. A liquor permit is required to purchase alcohol; however, alcohol is available in bars and restaurants within hotels.(224) Shisha et qahwa boutiques are also popular in Dubai. Biryani is also a popular cuisine across Dubai with being the most popular among Indians and Pakistanis present in Dubai.(225)

The inaugural Dubai Food Festival was held between 21 February to 15 March 2014.(226) Według vision magazine, the event was aimed at enhancing and celebrating Dubai's position as the gastronomic capital of the region. The festival was designed to showcase the variety of flavours and cuisines on offer in Dubai featuring the cuisines of over 200 nationalities at the festival.(227) The next food festival was held between 23 February 2017 to 11 March 2017.(228)

Entertainment

Arabic movies are popular in Dubai and the UAE. Since 2004, the city has hosted the annual Dubai International Film Festival which serves as a showcase for Arab and Middle Eastern film making talent.(229) The Dubai Desert Rock Festival was also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists but is no longer held in Dubai.

One of the lesser known sides of Dubai is the importance of its young contemporary art gallery scene. Since 2008, the leading contemporary art galleries such as Carbon 12 Dubai,(230) Green Art, gallery Isabelle van den Eynde, and The Third Line have brought the city onto the international art map. Art Dubai, the growing and reputable art fair of the region is as well a major contributor of the contemporary art scene's development.(wymagany cytat)

Media

Many international news agencies such as Reuters, APTN, Bloomberg L.P. and Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC) operate in Dubai Media City and Dubai Internet City. Additionally, several local network television channels such as Dubai One (formerly Channel 33), and Dubai TV (EDTV) provide programming in English and Arabic respectively. Dubai is also the headquarters for several print media outlets. Dar Al Khaleej. Al Bayan et Al Ittihad are the city's largest circulating Arabic language newspapers,(231) podczas Gulf News. Khaleej Times, Khaleej Mag et 7days are the largest circulating English newspapers.(232)

Etisalat, the government-owned telecommunications provider, held a virtual monopoly over telecommunication services in Dubai prior to the establishment of other, smaller telecommunications companies such as Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company (EITC—better known as Du) in 2006. Internet was introduced into the UAE (and therefore Dubai) in 1995. The network has an Internet bandwidth of 7.5 Gbit/s with capacity of 49 STM1 links.(233) Dubai houses two of four Domain Name System (DNS) data centres in the country (DXBNIC1, DXBNIC2).(234) Censorship is common in Dubai and used by the government to control content that it believes violates the cultural and political sensitivities of Emirates.(235) Homosexuality, drugs, and the theory of evolution are generally considered taboo.(224)(236)

Internet content is regulated in Dubai. Etisalat uses a proxy server to filter Internet content that the government deems to be inconsistent with the values of the country, such as sites that provide information on how to bypass the proxy; sites pertaining to dating, gay and lesbian networks, and pornography; and sites originating from Israel.(237) Emirates Media and Internet (a division of Etisalat) notes that as of 2002, 76% of Internet users are male. About 60% of Internet users were Asian, while 25% of users were Arab. Dubai enacted an Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law in 2002 which deals with digital signatures and electronic registers. It prohibits Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from disclosing information gathered in providing services.(238) The penal code contains official provisions that prohibit digital access to pornography; however, it does not address cyber crime or data protection.(239)

Sports

Football and cricket are the most popular sports in Dubai. Three teams (Al Wasl FC, Shabab Al-Ahli Dubai FC and Al Nasr SC) represent Dubai in UAE Pro-League.(224) Al-Wasl have the second-most number of championships in the UAE League, after Al Ain. Dubai also hosts both the annual Dubai Tennis Championships and The Legends Rock Dubai tennis tournaments, as well as the Dubai Desert Classic golf tournament and the DP World Tour Championship, all of which attract sports stars from around the world. The Dubai World Cup, a thoroughbred horse race, is held annually at the Meydan Racecourse. Dubai also hosts the traditional rugby union tournament Dubai Sevens, part of the Sevens World Series Event pictures of Rugby 7 Dubai 2015. In 2009, Dubai hosted the 2009 Rugby World Cup Sevens. Auto racing is also a big sport in Dubai, the Dubai Autodrome is home to many auto racing events throughout the year. It also features a state-of-the-art indoor and outdoor Kartdrome, popular among racing enthusiasts and recreational riders.

Dress code

The Emirati attire is typical of several countries in the Arabian Peninsula. Women usually wear the "abaya", a long black robe with a hijab (the head-scarf which covers the neck and part of the head). Some women may add a niqab which cover the mouth and nose and only leaves the eyes exposed. Men wear the "kandurah" also referred to as "dishdasha" or even "thawb" (long white robe) and the headscarf (ghotrah). The UAE traditional ghotrah is white and is held in place by an accessory called "egal", which resembles a black cord. The younger Emiratis prefer to wear red and white ghotras and tie it round their head like a turban.(wymagany cytat)

The above dress code is never compulsory and many people wear western or other eastern clothing without any problems; but prohibitions on wearing "indecent clothing" or revealing too much skin are aspects of the UAE to which Dubai's visitors are expected to conform, and are encoded in Dubai's criminal law.(240) The UAE has enforced decency regulations in most public places, aside from waterparks, beaches, clubs, and bars.(241)

Edukacja

The school system in Dubai follows that of the United Arab Emirates. As of 2009, there are 79 public schools run by the Ministry of Education that serve Emiratis and expatriate Arab people as well as 145 private schools.(109) The medium of instruction in public schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction. Most private schools cater to one or more expatriate communities.(242)

More than 15 schools offer an international education using the one or more of the four International Baccalaureate Programmes for students aged 3–19.(243) Several schools have introduced the new IB Career-related Programme that can be combined with a vocational qualification such as a BTEC.(244) The Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) signed an agreement with the IB in efforts to widen the options offered for parents and to meet the different needs of students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).(245)

Additionally a number of schools offer either a CBSE or an Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Indian syllabus. The Indian High School, DPS, DMHS are some examples. Similarly, there are also several reputable Pakistani schools offering FBISE curriculum for expatriate children in Dubai.(wymagany cytat)

A number of schools also offer British primary education up to the age of eleven. British style eleven-to-eighteen secondary schools offering General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels include Dubai Gem Private School, Dubai British School, English Language School Pvt. Some schools, such as The American School of Dubai, also offer the curriculum of the United States.(246)

The most well-known universities in Dubai are American University in Dubai, Hult International Business School, Al Ghurair University, The American College of Dubai, University of Wollongong in Dubai, British University in Dubai offering courses in Business Administration, Engineering, Architecture and Interior Design. American University in Dubai is one of the six UAE universities featured in QS World University Rankings 2014/2015.(247) In 2013 Synergy University Dubai Campus(248) opened its campus in Jumeirah Lakes Towers being a first University in Dubai to be located outside of Educational Zones (Knowledge Village or Academic City).(249)

Healthcare

Healthcare in Dubai can be divided into two different sectors: public and private. Each Emirate is able to dictate healthcare standards according to their internal laws, although the standards and regulations rarely have extreme differences. Public hospitals in Dubai were first built in the late 1950s and continued to grow with public health initiatives. There are now 28 hospitals in Dubai, 6 public and 22 private, with 3 more major hospitals scheduled to be built by 2025.(250)

By the end of 2012, there were also a total of 1,348 medical clinics, 97% of which are operated privately.(251) In 2015, Dubai phased in mandatory health insurance for all inhabitants, thereby leading to increased demand for medical services.(252)

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Dubai is twinned with the following cities:

  • Spain" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg/23px-Flag_of_Spain.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg/35px-Flag_of_Spain.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg/45px-Flag_of_Spain.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="750" data-file-height="500"/></span> Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain (2006)<sup id=(253)
  • South Korea Busan, South Korea (2006)(254)
  • États-Unis Detroit, Michigan, United States (2003)(255)
  • Germany" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/23px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="14" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/35px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg/46px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="600"/></span> Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany, as a Friendship city since 2005<sup id=(256)
  • Australia" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/23px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/35px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg/46px-Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1280" data-file-height="640"/></span> Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (2001)<sup id=(257)
  • China" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/23px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/35px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/45px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="900" data-file-height="600"/></span> Shanghai, China (2009)<sup id=(258)
  • Turkey" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg/23px-Flag_of_Turkey.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg/35px-Flag_of_Turkey.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg/45px-Flag_of_Turkey.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="800"/></span> Istanbul, Turkey (1997)<sup id=(259)
  • Indonesia" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="15" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/45px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="450" data-file-height="300"/></span> Padang, Indonesia (2015)<sup id=(260)
  • North Korea Pyongyang, North Korea(261)
  • Malaysia" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/23px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png" decoding="async" width="23" height="12" class="thumbborder" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/35px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.svg/46px-Flag_of_Malaysia.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="2800" data-file-height="1400"/></span> Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2010)<sup id=(262)
  • Zjednoczone Królestwo Dundee, Scotland, UK (2004)(263)

Voir aussi

référence

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Lectures complémentaires

  • Syed Ali. Dubai: Gilded Cage (Yale University Press; 2010) 240 pages. Focuses on the Arab emirate&#39;s treatment of foreign workers.
  • Heiko Schmid: Economy of Fascination: Dubai and Chicago as Themed Urban Landscapes, Berlin, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-443-37014-5.
  • John M. Smith: Dubai The Maktoum Story, Norderstedt 2007, ISBN 3-8334-4660-9.

Liens externes


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